Plants based materials as the antifungal and antibacterial agents

Abstract views: 127 / PDF downloads: 58



Antimicrobials, Antifungal, Phytochemistry, Medicinal plant materials, Primary and secondary metabolites, Pharmaceutical importance


The medicinal plants are a distinguished source of our earth, which cannot be replaced even though many developments in science and technology have been. Plants are very rich in bio-medicinal properties, as well as fabrication applications. Natural product materials play a vital role in curing many diseases without having many side effects; that’s why many researchers were working on phytochemistry. Plant organo-compounds such as quinine, alkaloids, polypeptides, lectins, coumarin, terpenoids, flavones, flavonoids, flavonols, fatty acids, tannins, and essential oils are metabolites for biological activities. In this review, plant materials and plants part, which are responsible for antimicrobial activity, have been discussed.


Ajav, E.A., Ogunlade, C.A., 2014. Physical properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale). Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: D Agricultural and Veterinary, 14(1), 1-8.

Alzohairy, M.A., 2016. Therapeutics role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and their active constituents in diseases prevention and treatment. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016, 7382506.

Ayodele, O.A., Akinyosoye, F.A., Arotupin, D.J., Owoyemi, O.O., Oyindamola, A.B., 2018. Phytochemical screening and antifungal activities of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) on mycotoxigenic fungi associated with the deterioration of Pennisetum glaucum grains. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 13, 1-11.

Ayodele, O.A., Akinyosoye, F.A., Arotupin, D.J., Owoyemi, O.O., Oyindamola, A.B., 2018. Phytochemical screening and antifungal activities of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) on mycotoxigenic fungi associated with the deterioration of Pennisetum glaucum grains. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 13, 1-11.

Bajaj, B.S., Ghosh, A.K., 1975. Advance in mycology and plant pathology published by Prof. R.N. Tondon’s Birthday Celebration Committee, New Delhi, Antifungal Antibiotic, pp, 297-311.

Baliga, M.S., Jimmy, R., Thilakchand, K.R., Sunitha, V., Bhat, N.R., Saldanha, E., Palatty, P.L., 2013. Ocimum sanctum L (Holy Basil or Tulsi) and its phytochemicals in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Nutrition and Cancer, 65(sup1), 26-35.

Baradaran, A., Rafieian-Kopaei, M., 2013. Histopathological study of the combination of metformin and garlic juice for the attenuation of gentamicin renal toxicity in rats. Journal of Renal Injury Prevention, 2(1), 15-21.

Bhardwaj, R.L., Rajput, R., 2010. Wound healing properties of neem oil (Azadirachta indica Juss) and turmeric powder (Curcuma longa). Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery, 31(1), 59-61.

Buchineni, M., Pathapati, R.M., Kandati, J., 2015. Anthelmintic Activity of Tulsi Leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) An In vitro Comparative Study. Saudi Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2, 47-49.

Chaleshtori, R.S., Chaleshtori, F.S., Rafieian, M., 2011. Biological characterization of Iranian walnut (Juglans regia) leaves. Turkish Journal of Biology, 35(5), 635-639.

Chanda, S., Ramachandra, T.V., 2019. Phytochemical and pharmacological importance of turmeric (Curcuma longa): A review. Research & Reviews: A Journal of Pharmacology, 9(1), 16-23p.

Chaudhary, A., Sharma, S., Mittal, A., Gupta, S., Dua, A., 2020. Phytochemical and antioxidant profiling of Ocimum sanctum. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 57(10), 3852-3863.

Cock, I., Setzer, W.N., Ruebhart, K.D., El Dahshan, O.A., Tomczyk, M., 2009. An anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects from Azadirachta indica leaves. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(13), 3084-3091.

Devendran, G., Balasubramanian, U., 2011. Qualitative phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of Ocimum sanctum L. leaves. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 1(4), 44-48.

Egamberdieva, D., Wirth, S., Behrendt, U., Ahmad, P., Berg, G., 2017. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants correlates with the proportion of antagonistic endophytes. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 199.

Funk, J.L., Frye, J.B., Oyarzo, J.N., Chen, J., Zhang, H., Timmermann, B.N., 2016. Anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in experimental rheumatoid arthritis. PharmaNutrition, 4(3), 123-131.

Grewal, P.S., Grewal, S.K., 1988. Selective fungicidal properties of some plant extracts to mushroom weed moulds/Proprietà fungicide selettive di alcuni estratti di piante a muffe. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 27(2), 112-114.

GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network), 2017. Zingiber officinale. Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 December 2017.

Gurib-Fakim, A., 2006. Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 27(1), 1-93.

Hashemi, S.R., Zulkifli, I., Hair Bejo, M., Farida, A., Somchit, M.N., 2008. Acute toxicity study and phytochemical screening of selected herbal aqueous extract in broiler chickens. International Journal of Pharmacology, 4(5), 352-360.

Hossain, M.A., Al-Toubi, W.A., Weli, A.M., Al-Riyami, Q.A., Al-Sabahi, J.N., 2013. Identification and characterization of chemical compounds in different crude extracts from leaves of Omani neem. Journal of Taibah University for Science, 7(4), 181-188.

Hossain, M.A., Nagooru, M.R., 2011. Biochemical profiling and total flavonoids contents of leaves crude extract of endemic medicinal plant Corydyline terminalis L. Kunth. Pharmacognosy Journal, 3(24), 25-30.

Hossain, M.A., Shah, M.D., Sakari, M., 2011. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of various organic extracts of Merremia borneensis from Sabah. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 4(8), 637-641.

Jacob, J.K.S., Carlos, R.C.A., Divina, C.C., 2016. Phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Advances in Environmental Biology, 10(7), 84-90.

Kannusamy, G., Rengaswamy, Gopal., 2016. Phytochemical constituents and in vitro antibacterial activity of a various extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem). International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 8(3), 52-55.

Kauroo, S., Govinden-Soulange, J., Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya, V.M., Miranda, K., Cotham, W.E., Walla, M.D., Nagarkatti, P., 2021. Extracts of select endemic plants from the Republic of Mauritius exhibiting anti-cancer and immunomodulatory properties. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-17.

Kim, M., Miyamoto, S., Yasui, Y., Oyama, T., Murakami, A., Tanaka, T., 2009. Zerumbone, a tropical ginger sesquiterpene, inhibits colon and lung carcinogenesis in mice. International Journal of Cancer, 124(2), 264-271.

Liju, V.B., Jeena, K., Kuttan, R., 2011. An evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activities of essential oil from Curcuma longa. L. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 43(5), 526-553.

Liu, Y., Liu, J., Zhang, Y., 2019. Research progress on chemical constituents of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. BioMed Research International, 2019, 5370823.

Lucantoni, L., Yerbanga, R.S., Lupidi, G., Pasqualini, L., Esposito, F., Habluetzel, A., 2010. Transmission blocking activity of a standardized neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extract on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in its vector Anopheles stephensi. Malaria Journal, 9(1), 66-70.

Luthra, P.M., Singh, R., Chandra, R., 2001. Therapeutic uses of Curcuma longa (turmeric). Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 16(2), 153-160.

Lyer, S.R., Williamson, D., 1991. Efficacy of some plant extracts to inhibit the protease activity of Trichophyton species. Geobios, 18(1), 3-6.

Mallikarjun, S., Rao, A., Rajesh, G., Shenoy, R., Pai, M., 2016. Antimicrobial efficacy of Tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum) extract on periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, 20(2), 145-150.

Mashhadi, N.S., Ghiasvand, R., Askari, G., Hariri, M., Darvishi, L., Mofid, M.R., 2013. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ginger in health and physical activity: review of current evidence. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4(Suppl 1), S36-S42.

Naseri, M., 2004. Traditional Iranian Medicine (Tim) and it's promotion with guidelines of World Health Organization. Daneshvar Science and Research Journal, 52, 53-66.

Naveena, B.M., Mendiratta, S.K., Anjaneyulu, A.S.R., 2004. Tenderization of buffalo meat using plant proteases from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome). Meat Science, 68(3), 363-369.

Niamsa, N., Sittiwet, C., 2009. Antimicrobial activity of Curcuma longa aqueous extract. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 4(4), 173-177.

Niranjan, A., Prakash, D., 2008. Chemical constituents and biological activities of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)-A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45(2), 109-116.

Oghenejobo, M., Bethel, O.U., 2017. Antibacterial evaluation, phytochemical screening and ascorbic acid assay of turmeric (Curcuma longa). MOJ Bioequivalence & Bioavailability, 4(2), 232-239.

Okemo, P.O., Mwatha, W.E., Chhabra, S.C., Fabry, W., 2001. The kill kinetics of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. African Journal of Science and Technology, 2(2), 113-118.

Pattanayak, P., Behera, P., Das, D., Panda, S.K., 2010. Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: An overview. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4(7), 95-105.

Pourhabibi‐Zarandi, F., Shojaei‐Zarghani, S., Rafraf, M., 2021. Curcumin and rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review of literature. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 75(10), e14280.

Praditya, D., Kirchhoff, L., Brüning, J., Rachmawati, H., Steinmann, J., Steinmann, E., 2019. Anti-infective properties of the golden spice curcumin. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, 912.

Prakash, P., Gupta, N., 2005. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 49(2), 125-131.

Prasad, S., Aggarwal, B.B., 2011. Turmeric, the golden spice: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine. In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; Chapter 13.

Prieto, P., Pineda, M., Aguilar, M., 1999. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Analytical Biochemistry, 269(2), 337-341.

Rahmani, A.H., 2014. Active ingredients of ginger as potential candidates in the prevention and treatment of diseases via modulation of biological activities. International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology, 6(2), 125-136.

Ravindran, P.N., Babu, K.N. (Eds.)., 2016. Ginger: the genus Zingiber. Boca Raton, Florida, USA, CRC Press, 551.

Rudrappa, T., Bais, H.P., 2008. Curcumin, a known phenolic from Curcuma longa, attenuates the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in whole plant and animal pathogenicity models. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(6), 1955-1962.

Sethi, J., Sood, S., Seth, S., Talwar, A., 2003. Protective effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) on lipid peroxidation in stress induced by anemic hypoxia in rabbits. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 47(1), 115-119.

Shahrani, M., Rafieian-Kopaei, M., 2009. Comparison of morphine and tramadol effects on phagocytic activity of mice peritoneal phagocytes in vivo. International Immunopharmacology, 9(7-8), 968-970.

Shikhsamani, H., Fallah-Hoseini, A., Shojaii, H.D., Goushegir, A., Abdollahi Fard, M., 2011. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran. Acta Medica Iran, 49(10), 637-642.

Singh, D., Chaudhuri, P.K., 2018. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.). Industrial Crops and Products, 118, 367-382.

Singh, N., Verma, P., Pandey, B.R., Bhalla, M., 2012. Therapeutic potential of Ocimum sanctum in prevention and treatment of cancer and exposure to radiation: An overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 4(2), 97-104.

Singh, R., Chandra, R., Bose, M., Luthra, P.M., 2002. Antibacterial activity of Curcuma longa rhizome extract on pathogenic bacteria. Current Science, 83, 737-740.

Siva, M., Shanmugam, K.R., Shanmugam, B., Venkata, S.G., Ravi, S., Sathyavelu, R. K., Mallikarjuna, K., 2016. Ocimum sanctum: a review on the pharmacological properties. International Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, 5, 558-565.

Sofowora, A., 1993. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa Spectrum Books LTD. Ibadan, Nigeria, pp, 191-289.

Sofowora, A., 1993. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books LTD. Ibadan, Nigeria, 289-320.

Sood, S., Narang, D., Dinda, A.K., Maulik, S.K., 2005. Chronic oral administration of Ocimum sanctum Linn. augments cardiac endogenous antioxidants and prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 57(1), 127-133.

Subapriya, R., Nagini, S., 2005. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review. Current Medicinal Chemistry-Anti-Cancer Agents, 5(2), 149-156.

WCSP (World Checklist of Selected Plant Families), 2016. Azadirachta indica. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 14 December 2016 – via the Plant List.

Yamani, H.A., Pang, E.C., Mantri, N., Deighton, M.A., 2016. Antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) essential oil and their major constituents against three species of bacteria. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 681.

Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, S., Abdul Kadir, H., Hassandarvish, P., Tajik, H., Abubakar, S., Zandi, K., 2014. A review on antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity of curcumin. BioMed Research International, 2014, 186864.




How to Cite

Bhovi, V. K. (2022). Plants based materials as the antifungal and antibacterial agents. International Journal of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals, 2(1), 98–110. Retrieved from