Investigation of apoptotic, cytotoxic, and antioxidant effects of Juglans regia against MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines
Abstract views: 160 / PDF downloads: 62
Keywords:Cell line, Anticancer, Antioxidant, Juglans regia, MTT assay
Cancer is one of the most common pathologies in the world, which for centuries has led to a decline in the standard of living and even death of many people. In short, cancer is a disease that occurs when mutations in genes that limit and regulate cell proliferation, survival, and movement are reflected in somatic cells. In recent years, there have been many new and promising developments in the world of science for cancer treatment. However, due to the side effects of some treatments, the cost of others, and the fact that some drugs are still in the trial phase, it has not yet reached the expected level of treatment and success. This has encouraged the scientific community to investigate natural agents due to their lower cost and limited side effects. Juglans regia L., popularly known as walnut, is a plant containing many natural compounds that have been used both as a foodstuff and for various medicinal purposes from past to present. As a result of the literature review, it is known that walnut has many medicinal and biological properties, especially anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antiallergic properties. In this study, the outer shells of J. regia were used and the components of these shells were extracted with three different solvents: methanol, ethanol, and hexane. These extracts were used in cytotoxic activity and antioxidant activity assays. The antioxidant activity of the extract was determined using a DPPH assay. Cytotoxic activity was determined by MTT assay using a breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). J. regia extracts were found to have significant cytotoxic activity on the MDA-MB-231 cell line. It has been observed that the outer bark of J. regia showed more potent anticancer effects than antioxidant activity. According to the results obtained from the study, the antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of the outer bark of J. regia is thought to contribute significantly to the identification of new active substances for cancer treatment. Therefore, further studies are needed to fully determine the effects of the outer bark of J. regia.
Akkol, E. K., Dereli, F. T. G., Sobarzo-Sánchez, E., & Khan, H. (2020). Roles of medicinal plants and constituents in gynecological cancer therapy: Current literature and future directions. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 20(20), 1772-1790.
Carvalho, M., Ferreira, P. J., Mendes, V. S., Silva, R., Pereira, J. A., Jerónimo, C., & Silva, B. M. (2010). Human cancer cell antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of Juglans regia L. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(1), 441-447.
Catanzaro, D., Rancan, S., Orso, G., Dall’Acqua, S., Brun, P., Giron, M. C., Carrara, M., Castagliuolo, I., Ragazzi, E., et al. (2015). Boswellia serrata preserves intestinal epithelial barrier from oxidative and inflammatory damage. PloS One, 10(5), e0125375.
Catanzaro, E., Greco, G., Potenza, L., Calcabrini, C., & Fimognari, C. (2018). Natural products to fight cancer: A focus on Juglans regia. Toxins, 10(11), 469.
Coskun, D., Dalkilic, S., Dalkilic, L. K., & Coskun, M. F. (2021). The Synthesis, Characterization, and Anticancer Activity of New 2-acetylbenzofuran-Chalcone Hybrids. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science, 45(5), 1561-1569.
D’Angeli, F., Malfa, G. A., Garozzo, A., Li Volti, G., Genovese, C., Stivala, A., Nicolosi, D., Attanasio, F., Bellia, F., et al. (2021). Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Juglans regia l. pellicle extract. Antibiotics, 10(2), 159.
Dalkilic, S., Dalkilic, L. K., İnci, S., Korkmaz, İ., & Kirbag, S. (2021). Investigation of cytotoxic effect of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) fruit. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 20(1), 54-58.
Deniz Güneş, B., & Acar Tek, N. (2021). Meme Kanserinden Korunmada ve Meme Kanseri Tedavisinde Akdeniz Diyetinin Etkisi. Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(2), 442-454.
Flieger, J., & Flieger, M. (2020). The [DPPH●/DPPH-H]-HPLC-DAD method on tracking the antioxidant activity of pure antioxidants and goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) hydroalcoholic extracts. Molecules, 25(24), 6005.
Halvorsen, B., Holte, K., Myhrstad, M. C., Barikmo, I., Hvattum, E., Remberg, S. F., Wold, A. B., & Haffner, K. (2002). A Systematic Screening of Total Antioxidants in Dietary Plants. Journal of Nutrition, 132, 461-471.
Huang, D., Ou, B., & Prior, R. L. (2005). The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(6), 1841-1856.
Jahanban-Esfahlan, A., Ostadrahimi, A., Tabibiazar, M., & Amarowicz, R. (2019). A comparative review on the extraction, antioxidant content and antioxidant potential of different parts of walnut (Juglans regia L.) fruit and tree. Molecules, 24(11), 2133.
Jahanbani, R., Ghaffari, S. M., Salami, M., Vahdati, K., Sepehri, H., Sarvestani, N. N., Sheibani, N., & Moosavi-Movahedi, A. A. (2016). Antioxidant and anticancer activities of walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein hydrolysates using different proteases. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 71, 402-409.
Khan, M. I., Bouyahya, A., Hachlafi, N. E., Menyiy, N. E., Akram, M., Sultana, S., Zengin, G., Ponomareva, L., Shariati, M. A., et al. (2022). Anticancer properties of medicinal plants and their bioactive compounds against breast cancer: a review on recent investigations. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(17), 24411-24444.
Khan, T., Ali, M., Khan, A., Nisar, P., Jan, S. A., Afridi, S., & Shinwari, Z. K. (2019). Anticancer plants: A review of the active phytochemicals, applications in animal models, and regulatory aspects. Biomolecules, 10(1), 47.
Kornsteiner, M., Wagner, K. H., & Elmadfa, I. (2006). Tocopherols and total phenolics in 10 different nut types. Food Chemistry, 98(2), 381-387.
Mishra, N., Dubey, A., Mishra, R., & Barik, N. (2010). Study on antioxidant activity of common dry fruits. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(12), 3316-3320.
Oliveira, I., Sousa, A., Ferreira, I. C., Bento, A., Estevinho, L., & Pereira, J. A. (2008). Total phenols, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(7), 2326-2331.
Pereira, J. A., Oliveira, I., Sousa, A., Valentão, P., Andrade, P. B., Ferreira, I. C., Ferreres, F., Bento, A., Seabra, R., et al. (2007). Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: Phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(11), 2287-2295.
Riss, T. L., & Moravec, R. A. (2004). Use of multiple assay endpoints to investigate the effects of incubation time, dose of toxin, and plating density in cell-based cytotoxicity assays. Assay and Drug Development Technologies, 2(1), 51-62.
Roy, P., & Saikia, B. (2016). Cancer and cure: A critical analysis. Indian Journal of Cancer, 53(3), 441-442.
Schmiech, M., Lang, S. J., Ulrich, J., Werner, K., Rashan, L. J., Syrovets, T., & Simmet, T. (2019). Comparative investigation of frankincense nutraceuticals: Correlation of boswellic and lupeolic acid contents with cytokine release inhibition and toxicity against triple-negative breast cancer cells. Nutrients, 11(10), 2341.
Shah, U. N., Mir, J. I., Ahmed, N., Jan, S., & Fazili, K. M. (2018). Bioefficacy potential of different genotypes of walnut Juglans regia L. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55, 605-618.
Siddiqui, A. J., Jahan, S., Singh, R., Saxena, J., Ashraf, S. A., Khan, A., Choudhary, R. K., Balakrishnan, S., Badraoui, R., et al. (2022). Plants in anticancer drug discovery: from molecular mechanism to chemoprevention. BioMed Research International, 2022, 5425485.
Soto-Madrid, D., Gutiérrez-Cutiño, M., Pozo-Martínez, J., Zúñiga-López, M. C., Olea-Azar, C., & Matiacevich, S. (2021). Dependence of the ripeness stage on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husk extracts from industrial by-products. Molecules, 26(10), 2878.
Vieira, V., Pereira, C., Abreu, R. M., Calhelha, R. C., Alves, M. J., Coutinho, J. A., Ferreira, O., Barros, L., & Ferreira, I. C. (2020). Hydroethanolic extract of Juglans regia L. green husks: A source of bioactive phytochemicals. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 137, 111189.
Yin, Q., Liu, M., & Ren, H. (2019). Biochar produced from the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and walnut shell for ammonium and phosphate adsorption from water. Journal of Environmental Management, 249, 109410.
Yuan, S., Gopal, J. V., Ren, S., Chen, L., Liu, L., & Gao, Z. (2020). Anticancer fungal natural products: Mechanisms of action and biosynthesis. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 202, 112502.
Zakavi, F., Golpasand Hagh, L., Daraeighadikolaei, A., Farajzadeh Sheikh, A., Daraeighadikolaei, A., & Leilavi Shooshtari, Z. (2013). Antibacterial effect of Juglans regia bark against oral pathologic bacteria. International Journal of Dentistry, 2013, 854765.
Zhao, M. H., Jiang, Z. T., Liu, T., & Li, R. (2014). Flavonoids in Juglans regia L. leaves and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity via intracellular and chemical methods. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 303878.
Zhou, X., Cai, J., Zhu, W., Zhao, H., Wang, K., & Zhang, X. (2015). Boswellic acid attenuates asthma phenotype by downregulation of GATA3 via nhibition of PSTAT6. Genetics and Molecular Research, 14(3), 7463-7468.
Żurek, N., Pycia, K., Pawłowska, A., & Kapusta, I. T. (2022). Phytochemical Screening and Bioactive Properties of Juglans regia L. Pollen. Antioxidants, 11(10), 2046.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Lütfiye Kadıoğlu Dalkılıç, Semih Dalkılıç, Lütfü Uygur
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The papers published in the International Journal of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals are licenced under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (CC BY).